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- Mixed Emotions by The Rolling Stones
Skip to search form Skip to main content. It introduces the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional understanding and emotional geographies. Drawing on interviews with 53 teachers in 15 schools, the paper then describes key differences in the emotional geographies of elementary and secondary teaching. View via Publisher. Save to Library. Create Alert. Share This Paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. Constructing student-teacher identities via a mentorship programme initiative Gregory Alexander , Micheal M.
This meta-analysis investigated the effects of: a distinguishing between dimensional and discrete emotions approaches to the study of mixed feelings, and b the type of mixed emotions tested. Differences arising from separate models and different types of mixed emotions therefore enable conclusions to be drawn about the degree of generalizability and specificity of mixed feelings. Several methodological characteristics were included as moderators to determine their impact in the elicitation of mixed emotions, including: a measures used, b induction procedures c design characteristics, and d demographic characteristics.
The measures used are of particular value as they reflect different assumptions about mixed emotions i. Induction procedures and design characteristics i. Finally, demographic characteristics were included to enable future research to focus on promising samples. Specifically, age and gender were studied because several studies have found a positive association between age and experiencing mixed emotions e. Reference lists in some articles were inspected to identify additional sources for inclusion.
Furthermore, emails to relevant researchers in the field were sent in order to incorporate potential unpublished studies. Similarly, a public advertisement was placed on ResearchGate an international online social network for researchers inviting researchers to share any unpublished studies investigating mixed emotions. The literature search identified articles and dissertations.
Four inclusion criteria were considered for the meta-analysis.
First, studies had to employ an experimental design and recruit a human, non-clinical sample. Experiments were chosen because: a they provide a meaningful counterfactual condition s against which to compare the activation of mixed emotions, and b the allocation of participants is random—or at least quasi-random—enhancing the adequate interpretation of the effect sizes. Experiments based on comparisons between cultures were only included if the samples contained participants from different cultural backgrounds randomly allocated to the experimental and control condition s.
Second, studies had to manipulate the experience of mixed emotions using films, images, music, or any other procedure that was deemed by the studies to instigate the experience of mixed emotions. Importantly, studies had to manipulate mixed emotions and report the effectiveness of this manipulation on participants' emotional experience in comparison with emotional experience in specific control condition s i. Third, studies had to measure mixed emotions, that is, studies needed to consider the experience of two opposite affects as co-occurring; studies in which other emotional blends were measured were not included e.
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The classification of mixed emotions was based on the hedonic valence of the emotions involved. Thus studies were included if they tested a positively and a negatively valenced emotion.
Similarly, if the study incorporated a dimensional approach, the following combinations were included; positive-negative affect, positive activated-negative activated affect, pleasant-unpleasant affect. Fourth, studies had to report a measure of mixed emotions that reflected the magnitude of the mixed emotion experienced for example, by using the common indices of mixed emotions described in the introduction.
Correlational indices were not considered unless two or more correlations were compared between experimental and control conditions e. General correlational indices were not considered, as correlations are not an appropriate measure for the experience of mixed emotions Schimmack, Of the articles and theses identified by the search, 47 articles met the inclusion criteria from which we were able to compute effect sizes for 35 articles involving a total of 63 independent studies. The other 12 articles were excluded because we could neither compute precise effect sizes nor estimate effects in the studies reported; authors were contacted where possible in an attempt to include these data.
Each of the selected articles is identified by an asterisk in the reference list. Two types of comparisons were examined in order to provide information about the relevance of different models for investigating mixed emotions, and the nature of mixed emotions. First, a comparison between dimensional models of affect and discrete emotions approaches was performed; studies considering dimensions of affect e.
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Second, we compared different types of mixed emotions, that is, happy-sad, fear-happy, disgust-amusement, hope-fear, positive-negative affect, and pleasant-unpleasant affect. Such comparisons help to clarify the generalizability and diversity of mixed emotions. To evaluate the effect of the moderator variables, studies were coded according to two methodological factors and three study characteristics.
Firstly, the measure of mixed emotions used was coded based on a 4-fold classification: i simultaneous measures of mixed emotions, ii measures of mixed emotions using the minimum index or derivations of a similar formula, such as the similarity-intensity index e. Secondly, the emotion induction procedure was coded according to whether ads, films, music, pictures, personal experiences, simulation or imagination e. Thirdly, the design characteristic of each study was coded according to whether it used a within-person or between-person design.
Finally, two demographic characteristics—mean age and percentage of women—were coded. Further details about the study characteristics and the effect sizes for each study are provided in Table 1. Table 1. Characteristics and effect sizes for studies included in the meta-analysis. We calculated effect sizes that represented the degree to which mixed emotions were elicited following the affect-manipulation procedure used in each study.
Thus the presence of mixed emotions was represented by a positive effect size; whereas the absence of mixed emotions was represented by values close to zero. Although it seemed unlikely, more mixed emotions among the control, relative to the experimental, condition or before, relative to after, the affect induction would be indicated by a negative effect size. The inclusion of both between-person and within-person study designs meant that we had to analyze data from different experimental designs.
We therefore adopted Morris and DeShon's method for combining results across independent-groups and repeated measures designs. As the research question concerned the robustness and consistency in the activation of mixed emotions across different theoretical and methodological distinctions, all effect sizes were transformed into a common independent-groups metric d IG following formulations and procedures indicated by Morris and DeShon Transforming effect sizes into alternate metrics requires an estimate of the population correlation between pre- and post-test scores Morris and DeShon, This is a common procedure to correct for measurement error which has been viewed as a typical study artifact in meta-analysis Schmidt, The restricted maximum likelihood REML method was used to calculate the effect sizes, as it estimates more conservative standard errors Raudenbush, and REML is more sensitive with small sample sizes Thompson and Sharp, These categories were considered appropriate to the current context because the largest contemporary meta-analysis of the elicitation of emotions in general Lench et al.
The homogeneity Q statistic Cochran, was used to evaluate the variability in effect sizes from the primary studies. Q is a diagnostic tool that can be used to determine whether there is unexplained variability in the studies selected Shadish and Haddock, Homogeneity is rejected when the Q statistic is significant. The homogeneity Q statistic was also used to compare effect sizes between different models of affect and different types of mixed emotions.
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To determine the magnitude of elicited mixed emotions we calculated the sample-weighted average effect size from the primary studies. This indicates that mixed emotions were of sufficient magnitude to be reliably detected under a variety of conditions. The corresponding forest plot including all the studies and the weighted average effect size are shown in Figure 1 ; studies with larger sample sizes are represented using proportionally bigger square symbols, and the diamond symbol reflects the weighted average effect size.
In general, studies with larger sample sizes and consequently higher power were closer to the weighted average effect size estimated, and only a small portion of studies—commonly those with the smallest sample sizes—diverged largely from the average effect size. Figure 1. Note: The presentation of studies follows the alphabetic order displayed in Table 1. This means that dimensional and discrete emotions approaches produce similar accounts for the magnitude of experience of mixed emotions.
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Average effect sizes across models of affect and across different types of mixed emotions. These results indicate that different combinations of mixed emotions all produced substantial effects. Several methodological factors and study characteristics were tested as potential moderators of the effectiveness with which mixed emotions were elicited see Table 3. First, the type of measure used to evaluate mixed emotions was tested. The use of simultaneous measures and frequency-based measures did not influence effect sizes.
Mixed Emotions by The Rolling Stones
In terms of the procedure used to induce mixed emotions, none of the induction procedures influenced effect sizes See Table 3. Similarly, the type of experimental design, that is, within-person designs or between-person designs, did not influence effect sizes. Age did not influence the experience of mixed emotions. To determine whether the estimated effect sizes were biased because of missing unpublished manuscripts with small or non-significant effects, the distribution of the effect sizes observed in the primary studies was examined using a funnel plot see Figure 2.
The funnel plot showed some signs of asymmetry; some studies with small standard errors were skewed toward a positive effect, larger than the average effect size estimated. However, statistical methods to detect publication bias did not provide sufficient evidence that this bias was severe in the sample of studies. Furthermore, contemporary methods to detect publication bias using a conditional estimator PET-PEESE; Stanley and Doucouliagos, did not reveal the presence of severe distortions in the effect sizes see Table 4.
Despite evidence of funnel plot asymmetry demonstrated by the coefficients in the regression models i. This was true considering both the full sample and separate samples based on the distinction between dimensional and discrete approaches. Table 4. Finally, a fail-safe N test for a meta-analytic random-effects model Rosenberg, determined that unpublished studies with zero effect size would have to exist in order to overturn the finding that mixed emotions are consistently elicited across the primary studies.
Overall, the data appear to be resilient to publication bias. This meta-analytic review examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited across a variety of theoretical and methodological contexts.